July - September 2020

Assessment of self care practice in patients with diabetes mellitus in tertiary care teaching hospital

Patel DA1, Solanki MN1*,Desai CK1, Parmar KG2

1. Department of Pharmacology, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad
2. Department of Medicine, Civil Hospital Ahmedabad


Background:Diabetes is one the global health emergencies of the 21st century with a prevalence of 9.1% and accounts for 5 million deaths annually. Self-care practices in diabetes patients along with medicines are crucial to keep the illness under control and prevent complications. Effective management of diabetes will be a difficult task without an adequate understanding of the existing level of practice related to diabetes self-care. Aim: To assess the level of self care recommendation and self care practice among the patients of diabetes mellitus.Methods:This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, single center study carried out in patients of Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and type 2 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated for self-care recommendations and self-care practice comprising of different components like diet, exercise, blood sugar testing, foot care, medication, and smoking by using SDSCA (Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities) questionnaire. The number of patients achieve >50% of SDSCA score for different components as well as a total SDSCA score were analyzed. Gender wise comparison of different components and total scores were done by applying unpaired t-test (p<0.05).Results:A total of 88 patients were enrolled including 35 men (39.77%) and 53 women (60.23%) with mean age of 55.87±7.62 years. Self care recommendation was received by all patients. Total score of study population ranges from 33 to 93 with mean score 66.26 ± 0.97.Out of 88 patients, 92% patients obtained > 50% of total score (total score=113). 55.7% patients achieved >50 % score for diet while 68.2%, 63.6%, 84.1%, and 90.9% patients achieved >50% of total SDSCA score for exercise, blood sugar testing, foot care practice and medication respectively. Majority of patients (84.1%) do not smoke. Foot care practice were found significantly higher in men than women amongst all components (p<0.023).Conclusion: Level of self-care recommendation and practices were found to be adequate. More efforts should be put to encourage diabetic patient implement these self care practices to prevent complications and to have better quality of life.

Keywords: Self Care, SDSCA, Diabetes Mellitus

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